## FCC Intermediate Algorithm Scripting Challenge – ‘DNA Pairing’

Today, we’ll cover freeCodeCamp’s Intermediate Scripting Challenge ‘DNA Pairing‘.  The challenge here is to write a function that accepts a string of characters and returns a 2D array of matched base pairs.

If you’re not caught up with your molecular biology, here’s a quick lesson…

Molecular Bio 101 (mostly not needed to solve algorithm)

DNA is the double stranded nucleic acid that carries your genetic information.  Each single strand is composed of units called nucleotides, of which, there are four – cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A) and thymine (T).  In double stranded DNA, these nucleotides bond in specific base pairs, A with T and C with G.

DNA stores all kinds of biological information and make up our chromosomes, which, in turn, make you who you are…  Enough bio, let’s get back to solving the algorithm….

Bio Class Dismissed…

As we get into the intermediate and advanced algorithm challenges, each challenge will have multiple (even many) approaches to a solution.  My plan with Crooked Code is to explain the solution that I used, then search for solutions used by others in order to illustrate the various ways an algorithm can be written.

This is what freeCodeCamp gives us as a starting point for ‘DNA Pairing’:

The instructions provided for this challenge tell us that we’ll be getting a string as an argument and we must return a 2D array that matches up each element (letter) with it’s base pair counterpart.

Let’s get started working on a solution…

I started by ‘splitting’ the string argument into an array using string.split() method.  I covered string.split() in depth here.   I also created some variables that we’ll use later in the function.  My ‘pairElement’ function now looks like:

We now must scroll through ‘singleArr’ and pair up each element with it’s matching pair.  We can use a for loop to scroll through the array, but how can we match up the pairs?

A bunch of if/else statements would work but a switch statement is a better option here.  A switch statement will evaluate a given expression, then transfer control to the case that matches the outcome of the expression.

I’ve included the syntax of a switch statement written by mozilla in order to make the explanation easier.

In our case, the expression will be just a letter, as will each case value.  We can then write a statement to be executed for each individual case.

To sum up the logic for our algorithm…

• split the given string into an array
• loop through array and match each element with it’s pair
• ‘push’ each new pair into 2D array
• return 2D array

At this point, we’ve covered everything needed to solve the ‘pairElement’ function.  If you’re working through the freeCodeCamp curriculum you may want to go try to solve it on your own, otherwise, read on…

Here’s the solution to the ‘DNA Pairing’ challenge that I came up with:

The freeCodeCamp wiki page (written by @Rafase282 and @sabahang) provides 2 solutions to this algorithm challenge.  The first, ‘basic’, solution is very similar to mine, using a switch statement, so I won’t include it for the sake of redundancy.

The second, ‘intermediate’, solution uses an object, and we haven’t really covered objects in much detail here at Crooked Code.  I’ll include the code below so we can see a second, very different solution, but won’t provide an explanation, as objects are far too big of a topic to cover at the end of this post.

You can see an explanation to this solution at the wiki page.

That’s it for now, hopefully this helped straighten out the code…

-Jeremy

## FCC Intermediate Algorithm Scripting Challenge – ‘Boo who’

This post will cover freeCodeCamp’s intermediate algorithm scripting challenge ‘Boo who’.

‘Boo who’ challenges us to write a function that checks if a given argument is classified as a boolean primitive.  If so, return true, if it’s anything else, return false.

The solution, once written, is quite simple but there are a few key concepts we have to understand before we can get there.

Here’s what FCC gives us as a starting point:

Now, we have to figure out…  What the hell is a boolean primitive?

First, let’s consider what boolean means?  Boolean is a word used in both math and computer science.  In computer science, it generally refers to a data type or a variable that can have only one of two values, usually true or false.

Boolean variables are useful in controlling the logic of an algorithm and are generally used in conditional statements such:

Second, what does primitive mean?  Mozilla, as always, gives a pretty good description of a primitive.  Basically, Mozilla tells us a primitive value ‘is data that is not an object and has no methods.’

Tangent on Primitive Types vs. Reference Type

According to the latest ECMAScript standard, JavaScript has 7 data types. 6 primitive types which are string, number, boolean, null, undefined and symbol and one reference type – object.

The difference between the two types becomes confusing when you consider that JavaScript provides constructor functions that allow you to wrap boolean, number and string values as objects, which changes them from primitive to reference type.

Consider the following:

Problems start to arise if you try to use a string object like a string primitive.  Keep in mind that a string object is still an object, and behaves like one.

For instance:

Given that JavaScript will allow you to use the methods associated with an object prototype on the primitive values (example below), it is best to use primitive types whenever possible.

FYI, Effective JavaScript by David Herman has a good section on why primitive types should be preferred to using object wrappers and I derived some of my examples above from those found in his book.

Ok, enough about Primitive Types, hopefully this has been more than enough info to solve ‘Boo who’.

End of Tangent

Check out the Mozilla link above for further explanation of primitive values (or this one for info on the Boolean object), but for our purposes in solving ‘Boo who’ we now know that the only boolean primitives are true and false.

So, now we have to fill in the booWho function above, checking if bool equals true or false.  In doing so, we’ll use the strict equality operator (===) vs. the loose equality operator (==), as the latter will convert the two values to a common type before checking equality, which is not what we want.

At this point, we’ve gone over all the tools you’ll need to write the booWho function, so if you’re working through the freeCodeCamp curriculum you may want to go try to solve it on your own, otherwise, read on…

Here’s the solution to ‘Boo who’ that I came up with:

As you probably know, || is the logical operator ‘or’ in JavaScript, so this function will return true if bool equals true or false.

The freeCodeCamp wiki provides an even shorter solution using the ‘typeof’ operator, written by Rafase282.

Both solutions solve the ‘Boo who’ algorithm challenge and pass all the test cases at freeCodeCamp.

That’s it for now, hopefully this helped straighten out the code…

-Jeremy